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15 October, Thursday
16 October, Friday
17 October, Saturday
Abstracts
 
CONFERENCE / WORKSHOP
Octóber 15-17, 2009


Late Crusades – Les croisades tardives


CEU and Hunagrian National Museum

 

Organisier(s):
Conference organized by the Medieval Studies Department of the Central European University (Budapest), Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Paris) and Casa de Velázquez (Madrid)

Contact person(s):
József Laszlovszky

E-mail:
laszlovj@ceu.hu


BETWEEN CONFLICT AND CO-EXISTENCE
INTERCONFESSIONAL FRONTIERS IN THE LATE MIDDLE AGES

ENTRE CONFLIT ET COEXISTENCE
LES FRONTIÈRES INTERCONFESSIONNELLES À LA FIN DU MOYEN ÂGE

15 October, Thursday


9.30-11.15
Introduction) by Daniel BALOUP (Casa de Velázquez, Madrid) & József Laszlovszky (CEU, Budapest) – Présentation par Daniel BALOUP (Casa de Velázquez, Madrid) & József Laszlovszky (CEU, Budapest

Perceptions and Representations of Frontiers – Perceptions at representations de la frontières
CHAIR: BALOUP, Daniel (École des hautes études Hispaniques et Ibériques, Casa de Velázquez, Madrid)

BOISELLIER, Stéphane (Université de Poitiers):
La frontière "portugaise" au Maroc dans la Chronique du Comte D. Pedro de Meneses

ROMHÁNYI, Beatrix (Károli Gáspár Calvinist University, Budapest):
The impact of the Ottoman Expansion on the Monastic Landscape in Late Medieval Hungary

JOUDIOU, Benoît (Université de Toulouse):
La frontière des Pays roumains avec l'Empire ottoman, frontière de la Chrétienté ? (XVe-XVIIe siècle)


C.12.00-13.30
Guided tour in the Italian and Spanish collection of the Museum of Fine Arts
(1146 Budapest, Dózsa György út 41., http://www.szepmuveszeti.hu) Guide: Dóra Sallay (Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest)


15.30-17.15
Frontier Ideology, Frontier Wars? – Une idéologie et des pratiques de la guerre propres à la frontière?
Chair: KLANICZAY, Gábor (CEU, Budapest)

ROJAS, Manuel (Universidad de Extremadura):
Nobility, Warrior Mentality, Sacralized Violence on the Frontier of Granada

SAVINETSKAYA, Irina (CEU, Budapest):
Crusades as a Social Interaction among Knights

SÁGHY, Marianne (CEU, Budapest):
Conflit, colonisation,coexistence dans le De Recuperatione Terre Sancte de Pierre Dubois


17.30-18.30
Round table discussion
The digital bibliography of the crusades and the military orders in the Middle Ages




16 October, Friday


9.30-10.45
Geographical boundaries: the material evidence – Les délimitations matérielles de la frontière
Chair: PAVIOT, Jacques (Université de Paris XII)

MALPICA, Antonio (Universidad de Granada):
La frontière nazari-castillane: espaces matériels d’affrontement et de contact

DEJUGNAT, Yann (Université de Poitiers):
Modalités et enjeux de la perception de la frontière islamo-chrétienne en Occident musulman à partir d'un récit de voyage (rihla) d'Ibn al-Khatîb (1347)


11.00-13.00
The space of co-existence and exchanges – Un espace de coexistence et d’échanges
Chair: Hunyadi, Zsolt (University of Szeged)

LÓPEZ DE COCA, José Enrique (Universidad de Málaga):
Grenade et la Couronne de Castille: la politique des trêves (XIIIe-XVe siècle)

LASZLOVSZKY, József (CEU, Budapest): Christian-Muslim Frontier in the Light of Material Evidence. Interactions between Hungary and the Ottoman Empire in the Late Medieval and Early Modern Periods

<>TOMKA, Gábor (Hungarian National Museum, Budapest):
Tobacco, Smoking and Pipes. Muslim Christian Interactions

BELÉNYESY, Károly (Field Service for Cultural Heritage, Budapest):
“Bombardarius regie meiestatis” - Prussian Know-how of Military Production in Late Medieval Buda


14.00-16.15
Chair: LASZLOVSZKY, József (CEU, Budapest)

PLUMTREE, James (CEU, Budapest):
"Ille uero tutissimam omnibus constituit uiam"; perceptions and practicalities of the Hungarian route to Jersualem

Religious minorities and religious life in frontier zones – Les minorités confessionnelles et la vie religieuse dans l’espace frontalier

GALAMB, György (University of Szeged):
"Mixtim commorantur". Églises et communautés religieuses en Hongrie méridionale au XVe siécle

RÉTHELYI, Orsolya (Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest):
Catholics and Protestants in Hungary under the Shadow of the Ottoman Empire

ECHEVERRÍA, Ana (UNED, Madrid):
Across the Borders in Fifteenth-Century Castile: Mudejar Networks with Granada


16.30-18.45
Late crusades, military orders – Les croisades tardives, les ordres militaires
Chair: JOUDIOU, Benoît (Université de Toulouse)

JOSSERAND, Philippe (Université de Nantes):
Omne que meior lo pudiere mantener e defender: the Master and the Islamic Frontier in mid-fourteenth century Castile

PÓSÁN, László:
Coexistence or Separation? Ethnic Relations in the State of the Teutonic Order

HUNYADI, Zsolt (University of Szeged):
From Nicopolis to Mohács. Hospitallers fighting against the Ottoman-Turks

Round table discussion – Table ronde:
Interconfessional frontiers in Europe in the Late Middle Ages. Perspectives for a comperative research. With the participation of M. Jean-Pierre Etienvre, director of the Casa de Velázquez (Madrid – Les frontières interconfessionnelles de l’ Europe à la fin du Moyen Âge. Perspectives de recherche comparée. Avec la participation de M. Jean-Pierre Etienvre, directur de la Casa de Velázquez (Madrid)




17 October, Saturday


10.00-11.00
Guided tour (In French) in the temporary exhibition : “Princesses from Afar – Catalonia and Hungary in the Middle Ages”.
Guide: Marianne Sághy (CEU) and Etele Kiss (Hungarian National Museum, Budapest)


11.15-12.00
Discussion on the exhibition and on related historical questions.
Introduction by Etele Kiss (Hungarian National Museum, Budapest)

12.00-13.00
Guided tour (in English) in the permanent exhibition of the Hungarian National Museum:

1.Medieval Hungary and the Crusades. Guide: József Laszlovszky (CEU, Budapest)
2.Hungary in the Early Modern Period, the Impact of the Ottoman Empire. Guide: Ibolya Gerelyes (Hungarian National Museum, Budapest)


14.00-18.00
Guided tour of the medieval royal castle and palace at Visegrád (http://visegradmuzeum.hu/)




Abstracts


The aim of this conference is to discuss the problem of interconfessional frontiers and aspects of these in the Late Middle Ages. These discussions focus on two crucial zones of contacts between Christianity and Islam in this period, Central Europe and the Iberian peninsula, as well as the Medieterraneum. The conference offers two types of contributions for these questions, synthetic reports on the better known subjects, and case studies. Three main problems will be discussed in particular :

The pertinence of the notion « interconfessional frontier »
Interconfessional frontiers are discussed by historians in the context of zones of contacts, where areas are dominated by Muslim or Christian powers. Therefore, the main element of this approach is religion. Is this a well founded approach ? What was the role of the confessional aspects in the construction mental and material frontiers between Christians and Muslims in the Late Middle Ages ?

Frontiers, as aspects of interconfessional confrontation ?
The utilisation of the notion « frontier » means that interconfessional confrontations were stoped for certain periods and certain forms of co-existence emerged between enemies. What were the possibilities to suspend the war against infidels, and how it was justified by theology, law or in other discorses ? Is it right to devide history into periods of conflicts of active (war) or statique (frontier) phases ? Or would it be better to discuss the changes of the rythm (war as a form of co-existence and the frontier as a form of confrontation).

Aspects of interconfessional frontiers
What are the characteristic features of zones of contacts between different religions, compared to other types of frontiers ? Were these frontier zones occupied and organized in a different way ? Are there particular aspects, which are not present in other frontier zones, or not in the same form ?





BOISSELLIER, Stéphane (Université de Poitiers)
La frontière "portugaise" au Maroc dans la Chronique du Comte D. Pedro de Meneses

En 1458-1464, le chroniqueur officiel de la Cour portugaise, Gomes Eanes de Zurara, rédige une chronique exaltant l'œuvre du comte D. Pedro de Meneses, premier capitaine de Ceuta ; cette œuvre offre une entrée originale sur les relations entre le monde chrétien (dont le Portugal se considère alors clairement comme fer de lance) et le monde musulman, à la fois parce que le chroniqueur réalise une sorte de bricolage génial, associant idéal chevaleresque médiéval, foi religieuse orthodoxe (répercutant platement la position pontificale) et culture classique, et parce que les rapports réels au Maghreb revêtent une forme coloniale, nouvelle dans l'expansion portugaise, d'une frontière entre des enclaves littorales fortifiées et des indigènes majoritairement hostiles, regroupés derrière un pouvoir légitime ; l'"image de l'autre" en ressort complexe et contrastée, entre intransigeance religieuse et relations ordinaires (notamment les échanges commerciaux).


DEJUGANAT, Yann (Université de Poitiers)
Modalités et enjeux de la perception de la frontière islamo-chrétienne en Occident musulman à partir d'un récit de voyage (rihla) d'Ibn al-Khatîb (1347)

En 1347, le souverain nasride Yûsuf Ier entreprend un voyage sur la frontière orientale de son royaume entre Grenade et Almeria. Cet itinéraire, remarquablement mis en récit par le célèbre polygraphe et vizir Ibn al-Khatîb, a été traditionnellement interprété comme une simple tournée d'inspection des forteresses érigées pour défendre le royaume nasride contre les incursions chrétiennes. Pourtant, la mise en perspective de cette source avec les autres récits de voyage andalous d'une part, et avec le discours sur le thème de la défense des frontières de l'islam élaboré dès le IXe siècle dans l'Orient abbasside d'autre part, permet d'entrevoir d'autres dimensions à ce voyage. En effet, à la lumière des travaux récents de la regrettée Maria-Jesus Rubiera Mata, ce voyage apparaît comme une mise en scène destinée à appuyer les ambitions des Nasrides au titre califal.



ECHAVARRIA, Ana (UNED, Madrid)
Across the Borders in Fifteenth-Century Castile: Mudejar Networks with Granada

Despite repeated laws issued by the Papacy forbidding contacts among Christians and Muslims across common borders, all the sceneries of crusading activity were privileged places for these exchanges. Muslim mediation for captives reached as far North as Avila during the War of Granada (1480-1492). The odyssey of Muslim almotacenes related to important Mudejar families in the city helps to understand networks established between Muslim communities living under Christian rule in the centre of Castile, and their fellow-Muslim in Granada. These contacts seem to have been regular. They defied Christian local authorities –town councils (concejos), Military Orders and their tenants- in a direct, straight dialogue with the Crown. But their protection was to be paid for, and at the same time, Mudejars had to comply with new demands from the same King and Queen they envisaged as their protectors.


HUNYADI, Zsolt (University of Szeged)
From Nicopolis to Mohács. Hospitallers fighting against the Ottoman-Turks

The military activity of the Hospitallers mainly focused on the Eastern Mediterranean: fight against the infidel from the fourteenth up to the early sixteenth century. The base of the activity of the strongly centralized Order was on Rhodes (1309–1523), however, some of its priories faced the raising Ottoman power far from the island, for instance, on the Balkans. The leaders and the preceptories of the Hungarian–Slavonian priory were concerned on different levels. They were supposed to contribute to the overall efforts of the Order against to Ottomans, both by recruitments and supplies. Moreover, the Prior of Vrana was, from time to time, ex officio in charge of commanding a part of the frontier-castle system, mobilizing even Hospitaller troops or other resources (1440, 1444, 1456, 1526). Third, from the early fifteenth century onwards, the majority of the Hospitaller preceptories and their landed estates were found south of the river Drava, some of them even south of the Sava, thus the approaching Turkish menace was an everyday concern for local brethren.


JOSSERAND, Philippe (Université de Nantes)
Omne que meior lo pudiere mantener e defender: the Master and the Islamic Frontier in Mid-fourteenth Century Castile

In spite of its recent renewal, the research on the Hispanic military orders is not used to considering the costs that these institutions had incured in the defence of the Castilian southern border. In this way, most of the scholars attribute the limits that we may observe in the armed involvement of the brethren from the end of the thirteenth century to an alleged refusal to fight. This position, however, is doubtful as it emerges from the example of the fortress of Lucena documented by different archives from Madrid and Cordoba. This case, without any documentary equivalent in the mid-fourteenth century Castile, reveals that the order of Santiago, which had received the place in 1330 from the bishop of Cordoba because of an imminent Muslim attack, remained then a major actor of the Frontier for whose defence the brethren did not hesitate to raise very important funds whatever the successes of such entreprises.


JOUDIOU, Benoît (Université de Toulouse)
La frontière des Pays roumains avec l'Empire ottoman, frontière de la Chrétienté ? (XVe-XVIIe siècle)

La communication a pour but de revenir sur la signification de la « frontière » des Pays roumains avec l'Empire ottoman. La question est paradoxale, puisque ces provinces sont devenues tributaires et en quelque sorte intégrées dans l'Empire. Mais elles ne cessent de faire apparaître leur différence et de revendiquer le statut de frontière de la Chrétienté puis, à partir du XVIe siècle, celui d'une interface particulière entre chrétiens et musulmans.


LASZLOVSZKY, József (CEU, Budapest)
Christian-Muslim Frontier in the Light of Material Evidence. Interactions between Hungary and the Ottoman Empire in the Late Medieval and Early Modern Periods

The archaeology of the Ottoman period is one of the most important field of studies to contribute to the discussions on the Muslim-Christian interaction in the late medieval and early modern period. As it will be demonstrated in this paper, early attempts to record Ottoman Turkish monuments, inscriptions and architectural details began immedieately after the Reconquest of Hungary at the end of the seventeenth century. Later, interest in the applied arts led to academic studies of the material culture of the Ottoman period., the art objects of fine craftmanship particularly were catalogued and studied. In the 1920s and 1930s, rural settlements in the areas conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the former territory of the Kingdom of Hungary were excavated, which can be seen as some of the earliest examples of post-medieval settlement archaeology in Europe. After World War II, the archaeology of the Ottoman period emerged as an independent field of archaeological study. From the 1970s onwards, archaeologists showed increasing interest in the non-Turkish elements of the Ottoman conquest period, as a consequence, terminological and interpretational problems started to emerge. Hungarian archaeologists started to seek out materials and archaeological features in a larger region and framework , not limited to the area of the Ottoman Empire. As the borders of the Ottoman Empire changed throughout the so-called Turkish period and some parts of medieval Hungary were never conquered by the Turks, this creates an even more complex framework for the interpretation of the material evidence. This recognition of the complexity of the historical situation requires a change in the archaeological interpretation. The material culture of this period, thus, represent an important theme for the more general problem of frontier zones and for the interactions between Christians and Muslims, and at the same time, between various ethnic groups.


LÓPEZ DE COCA, José Enrique (Universidad de Málaga)
Grenade et la Couronne de Castille : la politique des trêves (XIIIe-XVe siècle)

Des raisons religieuses et politiques ne permettant pas la signature de traités de paix entre l’émirat nasride de Grenade et la Castille, les trêves, ou suspensions temporaires des hostilités, étaient la seule issue possible du point de vue juridique. Certaines trêves prévoyaient l’obligation pour Grenade d’entrer dans la vassalité de la Couronne de Castille ; d’autres n’envisageaient que le paiement d’un tribut. Il eut aussi des trêves négociées et signées entre égaux, mais il s’agit là d’une circonstance qui ne s’est que rarement produite. Mon propos sera d’étudier la nature de ces accords diplomatiques. Je prendrai en compte, parmi d’autres aspects, la durée des trêves, le caractère d’engagement personnel qu’elles revêtaient et le marchandage politique qui accompagnait les négociations : les circonstances n’étaient pas les mêmes si c’était le roi de Castille ou l’émir grenadin qui demandait la rénovation de la trêve.


MALPICA, Antonio (Universidad de Granada)
La frontière nazari-castillane : espaces matériels d’affrontement et de contact

Du XIIIe au XVe siècle, la frontière entre la Castille et l’émirat nasride de Grenade est organisée de telle façon qu’il est possible de repérer des différences mais aussi des similitudes entre ses deux versants. Les châteaux sont, en fait, des agglomérations fortifiées qui n’atteignent jamais le statut de ville. Ils polarisent un territoire parsemé de bourgs ruraux, qui s’intègre dans un district plus vaste dépendant de l’une des grandes cités de la région. L’activité économique est dominée par l’agriculture irriguée, avec de nombreux échanges commerciaux, d’autant plus denses que les Castillans utilisent les vastes étendus de monts et de friches de l’émirat pour faire paître leur bétail. Cette intervention mettra en lumière l’organisation territoriale de chacun des secteurs de la frontière.


PLUMTREE, James (CEU, Budapest)
"Ille uero tutissimam omnibus constituit uiam"; Perceptions and Practicalities of the Hungarian Route to Jersualem

The route taken by the Crusaders was not a random decision, nor was it a route that was bound to be chosen. This matter is the subject of ongoing research. Elements examined include the creation of the pre-established pilgrimage route, the image of a Christian Hungary in the writings of pre-Crusader chronicles, the pratical reasons for the route taken by the crusaders, the logistics, the conflicts, and the image of the incidents in the Crusader and non-Crusader chronicles, and the legacy of the event.


PÓSÁN, László
Coexistence or Separation? Ethnic Relations in the State of the Teutonic Order

Coexistence and Separation characterized the State of the Teutonic Order, i.e. medieval Prussia. The policy of the Order had always been aimed at having the Prussian tribes recognize her political supremacy. By force of arms if necessary: in the course of waging war for nearly half a century against the Prussians, the Holy See sent summons to the Christians to take up the cross and go on a crusade. As a matter of first order, however, the Holy See was bent on winning over the Prussian nobility. To promote this end, they were endowed with estates, privileges and titles, and in the treaty of Christburg of 1249 they were ranked equal with western knights, moreover, it was made possible for them to join the Teutonic Order. There were occasional istances of this as early as the 13th century, while from the 14th century onwards our sources report on a fairly large number of knightly brothers bearing a Prussian names. The loyal Prussian families were pemitted to keep their properties or even enhace them, those who resisted had their estates transferred partly to loyal ones and in part to German and (less frequently) Polish nobles settling down in Prussian territory. Secular land-owners were, in this way, resident in close vicinity, and from the 14th century onwards increasingly frequent family relationships developed among them. At the same time, however, diffenrences as regard to their legal positon prevailed for a long time: the Germans had the so-called Kulmian (German) legal status, while the majority of the Prussian free yeomen doing military service had so-called Prussion legal status. Their true emancipation was only possible by endowing them with Kulmian legal status. Relatively numerous Prussian land-holders were bestowed this privilege. Certain areas, e.g. Samland, sided with the Knightly Order right from the outset therefore the Prussian pattern of settlement here survived almost undisturbed, which in turn resulted in the fact that there were hardly any vacant land awailable where German settlers could have come. In the case of Samland, one can identify ethnic separation. Similarly, German settlement villages came into existence in previously uninhabited, wooded and swampy areas in the other Prussian tribal territories. In the case of the peasantry, this meant the separation of the Prussian and German ethnic groups, and in this manner, no major conflicts developed between them. When in the 14th century an increasing number of Prussian peasants hired themselves out as farm-hands, shepherds, etc., owing to the subdivison of plots, to serve in the German villages, the two etnic groups entered into contact not as equal parties. The Prussians who moved into the German villages did soon assimilate, too. In the towns, however, real coexistence struck root; several documents make mention of individuals of Prussian origin even among the aldermen, but Prussians were also to be found among those town-dwellers who did not have citizenship. Migration of Prussan peasants to German towns or villages hurt the interests of Prussian and German land-owners alike. What is more, the Teutonic Order prohibited their migration several times subsequent to the end of the 14th century primarily at their behest. The repeated prohibitions permit the conclusion that they were futile. Due to the ethnic separation of the peasantry comprising the overwhelming majority of the population, Prussian remained throughout the middle ages a living, spoken language and it follows from this that the Teutotinic Order could not do without interpreters in state administration.


ROJAS, Manuel (Universidad de Extremadura)
Nobility, Warrior Mentality and Sacralized Violence on the Frontier of Granada

Thanks to an excellent corpus of sources, both original charters and chronicles, the main target of this paper is to argue that there was an evident relationship on the frontier of Granada between the warrior mentality own of the Castilian nobility and a sacralization of violence against the Muslims. These attitudes were rooted in a long standing tradition of struggle between Christianity and Islam in Iberian lands. The paper will not deal with concepts such as Crusade, Holy War or Just War. Not even issues such as the defence of the Christian faith or ideas os eschatological and messianic character will be touched upon here. The focus will be on charismatic leadership. That is to say, how some members of the Castilian warrior aristocracy –it is easy call “warlords”-, by means of personal bravery, military vocation and the practice of warfare, could achieve a high level of direct leadership over their pairs, as well as great prestige at his immediate social level. This fact does not of course rule out economic profits such as lordships, offices and posts that had some relation with the frontier, money consignments from the Crown for the sustaining of fortresses and fighter men, and a variety of other ways to increase the economic standing of these warlords. This behaviour, this type of conduct acted as an ideal model not only for contemporary writers and chroniclers, but also for the social fabric as a whole. Its true significance lay on the purpose of defeating the Muslims enemies, which were the adversaries par excellence for many different reasons but mainly for their belief in a mistaken religion. Due this, in its deepest sense, it is possible to talk of a sacralized violence, which found expression not only in external signs, such as religious practices and rites before the combat, collective invocations of divine aid, battle orations, war-cries, the use of Christian symbols and relics by warriors for example, but also in their most intimate and personal aspects. For medieval warriors, God was essentially the God of Battles, the Lord of Hosts of the Old Testament, and His assistance was a vital issue to gain personal security and to achieve the sweet taste of victory in war, especially when an open-field combat was fought.



F. ROMHÁNYI, Beatrix (Károli Gáspár Calvinist University, Budapest)
The Impact of the Ottoman Expansion on the Monastic Landscape in Late Medieval Hungary

Soon after the Ottomans gained position in Europe (1354) the first Turkish raid against Hungarian territories happened in 1390/1391. This first conflict resulted already in the destruction of five Franciscan friaries in Szerém county. Two years later three Pauline monasteries became victims of a similar raid. The continuous military activity in the following 150 years caused serious changes in the demographic, ethnic and economical situation in Southern Hungary. Parallel to the destruction of the medieval monasteries new, orthodox religious communities settled in the Hateg district and in Szerém county, following the arrival of new - Romanian and Serbian - groups from the Balkan. The fall of Nándorfehérvár in 1521 and the battle of Mohács in 1526 ment also an end of medieval monasticism in Hungary. All the monasteries and friaries - except the Franciscan friaries of Szeged and Gyöngyös - disappeared in the central region of the country under Ottoman rule. Several buildings were reused as fortifications, others were destroyed in order to prevent the siege of the main castles.


SAVINETSKAYA, Irina (CEU, Budapest)
Late Crusades as a Social Interaction among Knights

Crusading in the end of the fourteenth century in France was an activity of contrasting patterns. Though generally praised it was often criticized, in particular by the theoreticians of crusading. Participation in the crusading campaigns was mated with financial issues and knights were usually supposed to take part in the crusades at their own expense and only in special cases could they count on donations of their masters. Being a demonstration of wealth, crusades demanded from the knights extra expenses on gaming, food and on the exchange of courtesies that not everyone could afford. At the same time crusading was usually considered as a slightly marginal activity in regard to the service to the master, if not organized or propagated by himself. Despite these problematic issues crusade tended to remain a popular activity among knights.
This paper aims to investigate motivations of knights participating in the crusades. I argue that to a large extent they depended on the social interaction models among knights provided by the crusades along with other knightly activities such as jousts, tournaments, orders, etc. This study may shed light on the sources of sustainability of such phenomena as the late crusades, which were arguably a prominent idea in the West as late as until the seventeenth century.


SÁGHY, Marianne (CEU, Budapest)
Conflit, Colonisation, Coexistence dans le De Recuperatione Terre Sancte de Pierre Dubois

In the crusading projects that mushroomed after the fall of Acre in 1291, conflicts were not predicted exclusively with the Muslims: internecine wars among Christians were perceived just as problematic. The De Recuperatione Terre Sancte of Pierre Dubois, a French royalist lawyer who produced his pamphlet in 1306, dedicating it to King Edward I of England and to Pope Clement V, contains the first European peace proposal as well as the first delineation of a colonization process in the reconquered Holy Land.
In Europe, Dubois’ suggests the establishment of peace among Christian kingdoms by creating a sort of ‘European Union’ presided by the king of France. The spiritual leader of the crusade is still the pope, at the head of a radically reformed church, liberated from the burden of its terrestrial possessions -- the care of which will be kindly taken over by the king of France.
In the Middle East, the organization of war against the Muslims matters less for Dubois than the maintenance of the Latin states. He suggests a ‘guerilla-technique’ against the Infidels rather than confrontation of entire armies in full knighly attire. Small wars take longer, but result in victory. Following the reconquest of the Holy Land, women will play a crucial role in the survival of the Latin rule on the land which Jesus once trod.


TOMKA, Gábor (Hungarian National Museum, Budapest)
Tobacco, Smoking and Pipes. Muslim Christian Interactions

One of the most interesting aspects of the Ottoman conquest period (16th-17th centuries) is the interaction between various cultures – Ottoman-Turkish, German, Italian, Hungarian, Southern Slav – that existed side by side in Hungary. Archaeology can contribute to this fascinating issue through the analysis of the architectural and artefactual remains from the period. As one of the artifact types most commonly recovered from excavations, pottery is especially suited to archaeological analysis. Although several studies on pottery of this period have already been published, it must be borne in mind that the bulk of the pottery corpus comes from forts, castles and towns occupied by the Ottoman forces. Finds from villages lying in Ottoman-ruled territory have also been discussed. One of the groups of characteristic objects includes artefacts that are of Turkish origin. In these assemblages one can find clay tobacco pipes, a new element of the material culture of the period. Some of these pipes are particularly interesting, their careful manufacture, with marks written in Arabic letters or lavish stamped ornamentation suggest Turkish workmanship. Although there are some pieces among the clay pipes whose form and ornamentation still preserve vestiges of their Turkish origin, they were most likely manufactured outside the territory of the Ottoman Empire. Some other types of pipes were probably made in Hungarian workshops. The different types of pipes offer a wide range of interpretation concerning their origin, production place and routes of exchange. The Hungarian landowners of settlements in the Ottoman territories and the soldiers of the border fortresses who actually collected the tax from these settlements often demanded Turkish wares as “gifts”. These “gifts” took the form of carpets, footwear, but every now and then pipes, too, were included. Finally, we cannot exclude the possibility that some of these pipes may have been part of a booty taken by Hungarian soldiers during raids. On the basis of this group of material culture further conclusions can be drawn on the history of smoking, tobacco and pipes, important indicator for cultural interactions in a frontier zone.



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