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Interdisciplinary Medieval Studies - Bibliography and Research Tools
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MA Thesis Seminar
Research Methodology and Academic Writing
The Bible for Medievalists
Art and Liturgy in the Middle Ages
Collecting - Science, Technology and Museums During the Renaissance
Demography, Trade and Urbanisation in Medieval Central Europe
Institutions of Urban Societies and Royal Power in East Central Europe
Medieval Monastic Culture
Renaissance Europe: Culture, Institutions, Representations
Signa et res: Introduction to Medieval Philosophy
The History of Daily Life
The Image of the “Other” in Byzantium
Archaeozoology: People and Animals
Law and Legal Systems: Roman, Canon, Common, Customary Laws
Medieval Codicology
Physical and Cultural Space
Time and Chronology
Word and Text in Medieval Christianity
Greek (Beginner)

2007-2008 Fall


Aziz Al-Azmeh

The course aims to introduce the broad topic of historiography as a discipline regulative of the historical sciences. It will involve readings from historians and theorists of history in the ancient, Late Antique and medieval periods (Byzantine, Islamic and Latin), and some readings from modern and contemporary historiography, which will orient our consideration of earlier texts. Particular emphasis will be given to the purposes of historical composition, forms of historical discourse, schemas of history, including world history and salvation history, and conceptions and techniques of historical verification. Each class will be concerned with the discussion of assigned readings, which should be read in advance, with notes taken. Students will take turns in presenting the assigned readings with related material, and this, along with class participation, will count towards the final assessment. At the end of the semester, all students will be expected to submit a summary and critical assessment of Ernst Breisach, Historiography: Ancient, Medieval and Modern (Chicago, 1983), or another work to be agreed with the instructor.

2 credits


Marianne Sághy

What did Christians think about history? How did they understand their past and what did they think about the end of history? This course examines the development of Christian historiography from Eusebius of Caesarea to Augustine of Hippo as well as the medieval and modern interpretations of the Augustinian ages of the world. We will deal with the impact of the Bible on Christians’ view of their past, present and future and with various interpretations of the history of Christianity. Selected readings will include Augustine: The City of God; Eusebius of Caesarea: The Ecclesiastical History and their historiographic treatment. The course will also address current theoretical debates (Hayden White, Gabrielle Spiegel, Carl F. Morrison et al.)

2 credits

Interdisciplinary Medieval Studies - Bibliography and Research Tools

Gábor Klaniczay and Balázs Nagy
(Mandatory, Research Methods, 4 credits)

The course offers a systematic overview of the source-editions, handbooks, academic reviews, basic authorities, and research tools in the principal fields of medieval studies. In the teaching our entire faculty will participate, in rotation, to assure first-hand guidance from the experts of the different special fields. It comprises two seminars per week. The class will start in the ELTE-CEU Medieval Library where we can have an overview of the principal handbooks and source collections.

The individual classes will be supported by the bibliography-chapters arranged in the Handbook compiled from previous bibliographies prepared for earlier versions of this course around 2000, under the direction of János Bak (Prof. emeritus) in cooperation with Marcell Sebők and Marianne Sághy, updated more recently by Gábor Klaniczay and Balázs Nagy. A working version of this handbook is available on the common mededit drive. (Corrections and additional suggestions concerning recent publications in your countries are most welcome). We expect you to bring a printed copy of the relevant subchapter pages with yourself to the classes and possibly look into some of them beforehand in the ELTE-CEU library. In addition, you will find a “basic list of handbooks” at the end of this syllabus.


- On the first class you get two lists of academic journals related to medieval studies. The first group is called “general” – these are the journals which accommodate medieval studies in a synthetic manner such as Speculum (or even history in general such as Annales S.S.H, which also have an important medievalist section), the second group contains ones which are “specialized” to one of the fields. You will have to choose one from each group, read one or two recent issues of it (in case of the journals not specialized to medieval studies, obviously issues which do have articles or sections relevant to the Middle Ages), and characterize, on the basis of what you find there, the kind of medieval scholarship represented and promoted by that journal. We expect you to make a 5 minute presentation of the “general” journal you chose on one of the two seminars dedicated to this (10/9 and 10/11), and the presentations of the “specialized” journal will be aligned to the themes of the different classes and individually agreed upon. Please prepare a 1-2 page handout – for xeroxing you may ask assistance from Annabella. The texts and the handouts of the two presentations have to be submitted in writing, and, this will be the one of the components of the grading.

- Another assignment is a brief essay in heuristics: you will have to devise a research strategy for an enquiry in the solution of a specific historical problem, and describe it in a 2-3 page essay. A list of possible themes will be discussed in the first class, the essays are due by November 15.
In the final grading, in addition, participation in the common discussions will be taken into consideration.

Preliminary Schedule, to be confirmed at the end of the 0 Week

25 September
Klaniczay, Gábor – Nagy, Balázs
Sources and Handbooks at the CEU-ELTE Library

27 September
Klaniczay, Gábor
Types of Written Sources

2 October
Bak, János
Work on Texts

4 October
Szende, Katalin
Non-textual Sources

9 October
Klaniczay, Gábor – Nagy, Balázs
Medieval Academic Journal Presentations

11 October
Klaniczay, Gábor – Nagy, Balázs
Medieval Academic Journal Presentations II

16 October
Szakács, Béla Zsolt
Art History

18 October
Bak, János
Legal and Institutional History

25 October
Choykee, Alice - Laszlovszky, József
Archaeology and Environmental History

30 October
Klaniczay, Gábor – Rasson, Judith
Anthropology for Medievalists

6 November
Nagy, Balázs
Economic History

8 November
Szende, Katalin
Urban History

13 November
Alazmeh, Aziz
The Arab World

15 November
Sághy, Marianne Late
Antiquity and Early Monasticism

20 November
Geréby, György
Medieval Philosophy

22 November
Gaul, Niels
Byzantine Studies

27 November
Klaniczay, Gábor
Ecclesiastical History and Hagiography

29 November
Jaritz, Gerhard – Klaniczay, Gábor
Gender and history of the body

4 December
Sághy, Marianne
Medieval Literatures

6 December
Jaritz, Gerhard
History of Everyday Life

11 December
Szőnyi, György Endre
History of Magic and Occult Sciences

13 December
Sebők, Marcell
Humanism and Renaissance



1) Bibliography
BHA = Bibliography of the History of Art. Getty Research Institute and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. CNRS: 1973-. Can be accessed electronically at:

2) Lexicons
Turner, Jane, ed. The Dictionary of Art. 34 vols. London and New York: Grove Macmillan, 1996.

Romanini, Angela Maria, ed. Enciclopedia dell’arte medievale. 12 vols. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1991-2002.

3) Series
Conant, K.J. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800-1200. The Pelican History of Art. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

Hubert, J, J. Porcher and W.F. Volbach. Europe in the Dark Ages. Universum der Kunst/Univers des Forms/The Arts of Mankind. London: Thames and Hudson, 1969.

Volbach, W.F. and J. Lafontaine-Dosogne. Byzanz und der christliche Osten. Propyläen-Kunstgeschichte 3. Berlin: Propyläen Verlag, 1968.

4) Exhibition catalogues
Europe's Centre Around AD 1000. Edited by Alfred Wieczorek and Hans-Martin Hinz. Stuttgart: Theiss, 2000 Plublished in conjunction with the exhibition in Budapest, Berlin, Mannheim, Prague, Bratislava 2000-2002.

*See also Europas Mitte um 1000. Handbuch und Katalog zur Ausstellung.

Sigismundus Rex et Imperator: Kunst und Kultur zur Zeit Sigismunds von Luxemburg, 1387-1437. Ed. by Imre Takács. Mainz: Philip von Zabern, 2006. Extracts in English entitled: Sigismund of Luxemburg. Art and Culture, 1487-1437. Published in conjunction with the exhibition in Budapest, Szépművészeti Múzeum 18 March-18 June 2006 and Luxembourg, Musée National d'Histoire et d'Art 13 July-15 October 2006.


1) Introductions and reference works
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, 3 vols, Oxford, New York: OUP, 1991.

G. Cavallo (ed.), L’uomo bizantino, Rome, Bari: Laterza, 1992. — Engl. tr., The Byzantines, Chicago, London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1997.

C. Mango, The Oxford history of Byzantium, Oxford: OUP, 2003.

E. Jeffreys, J. Haldon and R. Cormack, The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies, Oxford: OUP, forthcoming 2007.

P. Schreiner, Byzanz, Oldenbourg Grundriß der Geschichte 22, 2nd edn, Munich: Oldenbourg 1994 (3rd edn, forthcoming 2007).

H.-G. Beck, Das byzantinische Jahrtausend, 2nd edn, Munich: Beck, 1994.

2)Topography and historical geography. Constantinople
J. Koder, Der Lebensraum der Byzantiner. Historisch-geographischer Abriß ihres mittelalterlichen Staates im östlichen Mittelmeerraum. Nachdruck mit bibliographischen Nachträgen, rev. edn, Vienna: Fassbänder, 2001.

P. Schreiner, Konstantinopel. Geschichte und Archäologie, Munich: Beck, 2007.

P. Magdalino, Studies on the history and topography of Constantinople, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.

A. Laiou (ed.), The economic history of Byzantium, 3 vols, Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Center and Library, 2002.

Byzantine history (after late antiquity)
There is no single volume replacing Ostrogorsky’s handbook, which is by now hopelessly out of date.

M. Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the age of Justinian, Cambridge: CUP, 2005.

J. F. Haldon, Byzantium in the seventh century: the transformation of a culture, Cambridge: CUP, 1990.

M. Whittow, The making of orthodox Byzantium, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996.

J. Haldon and L. Brubaker, Byzantium in the iconoclast period, Cambridge: CUP, forthcoming 2007.
W. Treadgold, The Byzantine revival, 780‒842, Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1988.

M. Angold, The Byzantine Empire, 1025–1204: a political history, 2nd edn, London: Longman, 1997.

P. Magdalino, The empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143–1180, Cambridge: CUP, 1993.

D. M. Nicol, The last centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453, 2nd edn, Cambridge: CUP, 1993.

3)Theology and Church
J.-M. Mayeur, C. Pietri, A. Vauchez and M. Venard (eds), Histoire du christianisme des origines á nos jours, vols 4-7, Paris: Desclee de Brouwer, 1990-4.

M. Angold (ed.), The Cambridge history of Christianity, 5: Eastern Christianity, Cambridge: CUP, 2006.

D. Krueger (ed.), Byzantine Christianity, A people’s history of Christianity 3, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2006.

4)Literary, intellectual and book history
H. Hunger, Die hochsprachliche profane Literatur der Byzantiner, Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft XII.5.1–2, 2 vols, Munich: Beck, 1978.

R. Beaton, The medieval Greek romance, 2nd edn, London: Routledge, 1996.

A. Kazhdan, A History of Byzantine Literature (650-850, 850-1000), 2 vols, Athens: Institute for Byzantine Research, 1999-2006.

J. O. Rosenqvist, Die byzantinische Literatur vom 6. Jahrhundert bis zum Fall Konstantinopels 1453, Berlin, New York: De Gruyter, 2007.

N. G. Wilson, Scholars of Byzantium, 2nd edn, London: Duckworth, 1996.

5) Material aspects
C. Mango, The art of the Byzantine Empire, 312–1453: sources and documents, repr. edn, Toronto, Buffalo, London: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1986.

L. Rodley, Byzantine art and architecture: an introduction, Cambridge: CUP, 1994.

J. Lowden, Early Christian and Byzantine art, London: Phaidon, 1997.

N. Oikonomidès, Byzantine Lead Seals, Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Center and Library, 1985.


Bog, Ingomar, ed. Der Aussenhandel Ostmitteleuropas 1450-1650. Köln-Wien: Böhlau, 1971.

Duby, Georges. L'économie rurale et la vie des campagnes dans l'occident médiéval. 2 vols. Paris: Aubier, 1962. Translated by Cynthia Postan as Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1968).

Kellenbenz, Hermann, ed. Handbuch der europäische Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte. Vol. 3, Europäische Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte vom ausgehenden Mittelalter bis zur Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1986.

Lindgren, Uta, ed. Europäische Technik im Mittelalter: Tradition und Innovation: ein Handbuch. Berlin: Gebr. Mann, 1997.

Maczak, Antoni , Henryk Samsonowicz and Peter Burke, eds. East Central Europe in Transition from the Fourteenth to the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

McCormick, Michael. Origins of the European Economy: Communications and Commerce A.D. 300-900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Postan, M.M., E. E. Rich and E. Miller, eds. Cambridge Economic History of Europe. Vol. 3, Economic Organisations and Policies in the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963.

Postan, M.M., ed. Cambridge Economic History of Europe. Vol. 1, The Agrarian Life of the Middle Ages. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Postan, M.M and E. Miller, eds. Cambridge Economic History of Europe. Vol. 2, Trade and Industry in the Middle Ages. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Pounds, Norman John Greville. An Economic History of Medieval Europe. London: Longman, 1974.

Russell, Josiah Cox. The Control of Late Ancient and Medieval Population. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 1985.

Slicher van Bath, B.H. The Agrarian History of Western Europe. London: Edward Arnold, 1963.

Spufford, Peter. Money and its Use in Medieval Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Spufford, Peter. Power and Profit: the Merchant in Medieval Europe. London: Thames & Hudson, 2003.

Van Houtte, Jan A. And Hermann Kellenbenz, eds. Handbuch der europäische Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte. 3 vols. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1980.


1)General handbooks, study guides, and general bibliographies:
Endress, Gerhard. An Introduction to Islam. Translated by Carole Hillenbrand. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1988.

Humphreys, R. Stephen. Islamic History. A Framework for Inquiry. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.

2) Bibliography of periodical literature in Western languages from 1906 to date:
Pearson, J. D. et al., Index Islamicus. Cambridge: W. Heffer, 1958-

* CD-Rom version available in the CEU library as Index Islamicus: A Bibliography of Publications on Islam and the Muslim World since 1906. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2002-

* Supplemented by Majer, H.G. Osmanistische Nachträge zum Index Islamicus. Munich: 1968.

3)For an annotated and systematic bibliography on history and historiography:

Amman, Ludwig, “Kommentiertes Literaturverzeichnis zu Zeitvorstellungen und geschchtlichem Denken in der islamischen Welt” Die Welt des Islams 37 (1997): 28-87

4)Basic Reference:
Encyclopedia of Islam. Reprint of the New Edition. Leiden: E.J Brill 1986. In Turkish, based in part on the old edition as Islam Ansiklopedisi. Istanbul: 1940-81.

5)Repertories of sources in Arabic:
Brockelmann, Carl. Geschichte der arabischen Literatur. With supplements. Leiden: Brill, 1943-49.

Sezgin, Fuat. Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums. 10 vols. Leiden: E.J Brill, 1967-

Graf, Georg. Geschichte der christllichen arabischen Literatur. Vatican City: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1944-1953.

Papyrology, Inscriptions and Numismatics:
A wide variety of sources is available and are listed in the aforementioned Endress.

6) History of scholarship:
Rodinson, Maxime. Europe and the Mystique of Islam. Translated by Roger Veinus. London: I. B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2002.

Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books, 1979.

7) History:
Cahen, Claude. L’Islam des origines au début de l’empire ottoman. Paris: Hachette, 1970.

Hodgson, Marshall G. S. The Venture of Islam. 4 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974.

Hodgson, Marshall G. S. Rethinking World History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Hourani, Albert. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1991.

Lombard, Maurice. The Golden Age of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.

* the CEU library holds the French original (L'Islam dans sa premiere grandeur : VIIIe-XIe siecle) and the German translation (Blütezeit des Islam : eine Wirtschafts- und Kulturgeschichte, 8.-11. Jahrhundert). The English translation is on order.

8) Geography, ethnography, ethnology and travel:
Miquel, André. La géographie humaine du monde musulman. 3 vols. Paris: Mouton, 1967-1980.

9) Arts and architecture:
Blair, Sheila and Jonathan Bloom. Islamic Arts. London: Phaidon Press, 1997.

Grabar, Oleg. The Art and Architecture of Islam, 650-1250. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1994.

Necipoglu, G. The Age of Sinan. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.

Necipoglu, G. Architecture, Ceremonial and Power: The Topkapi Palace in the 15th and 16th Centuries. New York: Architectural History Foundation, 1991.


Bowersock, G.W., P. Brown and O. Grabar, eds. Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Brown, Peter. The Cult of the Saints. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1981.

________. The Body and Society. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989.

________. The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity 200-1000 AD. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.

Cameron, Averil. Christianity and the Rhetoric of Empire: The Development of Christian Discourse. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Dagron, Gilbert. Naissance d'une capitale: Constantinople et ses institutions de 330 à 451. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1974.

Howard-Johnston, J.D and P. A. Hayward, eds. The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Essays on the Contribution of Peter Brown. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Lenski, Noel, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Mayeur, J.M., Ch. Pietri, and L. Pietri, eds. Histoire du christianisme II: Naissance d'une chrétienté 250-430. Paris: Desclée, 1995.

Ward-Perkins, Bryan. The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.


1) General:
Walter Ullmann, The individual and society in the Middle Ages. London : Methuen, c1967 (Presents in brief the notion of ‘ascending and descending theme of govt.’)

2) Political theory

Walter Ullmann , A history of political thought : the Middle Ages. Harmondsworth : Penguin Books, c1965 (short introduction)

The Cambridge history of medieval political thought c. 350-c. 1450. edited by J.H. Burns Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991 (detailed discussion with bibliography)

Walter Ullmann Law and politics in the Middle Ages : an introduction to the sources of medieval political ideas. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1975 (selected chapters xeroxed in Main Library)

A history of mediaeval political theory in the West / by Sir R. W. Carlyle and A. J. Carlyle Edinburgh : W. Blackwood, 1950, 6 vols. (Detailed, occasionally dated but very informative studies; a classic from the 1930s)

Lester L. Field, Jr, Liberty, dominion, and the two swords : on the origins of Western political theology (180-398). Notre Dame, Ind : University of Notre Dame Press, c1998
Ernst H. Kantorowicz, The king's two bodies : a study in mediaeval political theology. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981 [1st ed. 1957]

Medieval political philosophy : a sourcebook, edited by Ralph Lerner and Muhsin Mahdi ; with the collaboration of Ernest L. Fortin. Published Ithaca, NY.: Cornell University Press, [1963] (Texts in translation:)

From Irenaeus to Grotius : a sourcebook in Christian political thought, 100-1625 / edited by Oliver O'Donovan and Joan Lockwood O'Donovan Grand Rapids, Mich. : William B. Eerdmans, c1999 (Texts with introd. studies(

3) Law
3.1) Overview and bibliography:
Chapters in Mantello-Rigg Medieval Latin: “Roman and Secular Law” (pp.254-66) and “Canon Law” (241-53)

K. Pennington, “Medieval Law,” in Powell, Medieval Studies, ed. 2, pp. 333-52

Armin Wolf, Gesetzgebung in Europa, 1100-1500: zur Entstehung der Territorialstaaten Munich : C. H. Beck, 1996

3.2) Laws in translation:
The Burgundian code : book of constitutions or law of Gundobad, additional enactments / translated by Katherine Fischer Drew ; foreword by Edward Peters Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996

Laws of the Alamans and Bavarians. Translated, with an introd., by Theodore John Rivers. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977

The laws of the Salian Franks / translated and with an introduction by Katherine Fischer Drew. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, c1991

The Liber Augustalis : or, Constitutions of Melfi, promulgated by the Emperor Frederick II for the Kingdom of Sicily in 1231 Translated with an introd. and notes by James M. Powell Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, c1971

The Saxon mirror : a Sachsenspiegel of the fourteenth century. Translated by Maria Dobozy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, c1999

The Laws of Rus' : tenth to fifteenth centuries / translated and edited by Daniel H. Kaiser ; foreword by Richard Hellie Salt Lake City, Utah: Charles Schlacks, Jr., 1992

The Laws of the medieval kingdom of Hungary. Decreta regni mediaevalis Hungariae, eds. J. M. Bak, J. R. Sweeney et al., Idyllwild: Schlacks 1989- sqq. 4 vols.

NEW APPROACHES (a few examples)

Conflict in medieval Europe : changing perspectives on society and culture. Edited by Warren C. Brown and Piotr Górecki. Aldershot : Ashgate, c2003

Geoffrey Koziol, Begging pardon and favor : ritual and political order in early medieval France, Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, 1992

Gerd Althoff, Family, friends and followers : political and social bonds in medieval Europe ; translated by Christopher Carroll. Cambridge--New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004


1) General
Grässe, Johann Georg Theodor. 1986. Bibliotheca magica et pneumatica. Hildesheim : G. Olms .

Robbins, Rossel Hope. 1981. The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology (1959). New York: Bonanza Books .

Seligmann, Kurt. 1983. Magic, Supernaturalism and Religion (1948). New York: Harmony Books .

2)Science and intellectual history
Scholem, Gerschom. 1995. Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1946). New York: Schocken Books .

Thomas, Keith. 1971. Religion and the Decline of Magic. Studies in Popular Beliefs in 16th and 17th century England . London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson .

Thorndike, Lynn [1882-1965]. 1923-58. A History of Magic and Experimental Science (8 vols). New York: Columbia .

Yates, Frances A. 1964. Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition. London / Chicago: RKP / The University of Chicago Press ; 1968.

3) Alchemy
Moran, Bruce T. 2005. Distilling Knowledge: Alchemy, Chemistry, and the Scientific Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press .

Roberts, Gareth. 1994. The Mirror of Alchemy: Alchemical Ideas and Images in Manuscripts and Books : from Antiquity to the Seventeenth Century. London: The British Library .

Szulakowska, Urszula. 2000. The Alchemy of Light. Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration. Leiden: Brill (Symbola & Emblemata 10) .

4) Astrology
Garin, Eugenio. 1983. Astrology in the Renaissance. The Zodiac of Life (1976). London: RKP.

Page, Sophie. 2002. Astrology in Medieval Manuscripts. London: The British Museum .

Tester, S. J. 1987. A History of Western Astrology. Woodbridge, U.K.: Boydell .

Weill-Parot. Nicolas. 2002. Les "images astrologiques" au moyen âge et `a la renaissance : spéculations intellectuelles et pratiques magiques (XIIe-XVe siècle). Paris: Champion .

4) Hermetism
Copenhaver, Brian P. (ed.). 1992. Hermetica. The Greek Corpus Hermeticum and the Latin Asclepius in a new English tramslation with notes and introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .

Fowden, Garth. 1986. The Egyptian Hermes: A historical approach to the late pagan mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .

Nock, A.D. & A.-J. Festugière (eds.). 1945-54. Corpus hermeticum (Vol I: Corpus hermeticum I-XII; Vol II: Corpus hermeticum XII-XVIII, Asclepius; Vol III: Fragments extraits de Stob e I-XXII; Vol IV: Fragments extraits de Stob e, Fragments divers). Paris .

5) Medieval
Fanger, Claire ed. 1998. Conjuring Spirits. Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic. Phoenix Mill (UK): Sutton Publishing .

Flint, Valerie I. J. 1991. The Rise of Magic in Early Medieval Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press .

Kieckhefer, Richard. 1989. Magic in the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .

6) Renaissance
Buck, August (ed.). 1992. Die okkulten Wissenschaften in der Renaissance. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (Wolfenbütteler Abhandlungen zur Renaissanceforschung 12)

Lehrich, Christopher L. 2003. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy. Leiden: Brill .

Shumaker, Wayne. 1972. The Occult Sciences in the Renaissance: a Study in Intellectual Patterns. Berkeley, Cal.: University of California Press .

Szőnyi, György Endre. 2004. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs. New York: SUNY Press .


Bec, Pierre. Chants d'amour des femmes troubadours. Paris: Stock, 1995.

Bumke, Joachim. Courtly Culture: Literature and Society in the High Middle Ages. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Curtius, Ernst Robert. European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1973.

Dihle, Albrecht. Greek and Latin Literature of the Roman Empire: From Augustus to Justinian. London: Routledge, 1994.

Dronke, Peter. The Medieval Lyric. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1996

Jauss, Hans Robert. Alterität und Modernität der mittelalterlichen Literatur. München: W. Fink, 1977.

Stanesco, Michael and Michel Zink. Histoire européenne du roman médiévale. Esquisse et perspectives. Paris: PUF, 1992.

Watson, G., ed. The New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature: 600-1600. Vol 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974.

Zink, Michel. Medieval French Literature : an Introduction. Binghamton, N.Y. : Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1995.

Zumthor, Paul. Toward a Medieval Poetics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.


Grabmann, M. Die Geschichte der scholastischen Methode I-II. Freiburg im Breisgrau, Herder Unveränderter Nachdruck: Berlin, Akademie-Verlag, 1988.

Duhem, P. Medieval Cosmology: Theories of Infinity, Place, Time, Void and the Plurality of Worlds. Edited and translated by R. Ariew. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

Gilson, E. La philosophie au moyen age. Paris: Payot, 1944. . Translated and augmented by P. Boehner as History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages (London: Random House, 1955. Also can be found under: Die Geschichte der christlichen Philosophie. Paderborn: F. Schöningh, 1937.

Pluta, O. Die Philosophie im 14. und 15. Jahrhundert. In Memoriam Konstanty Michalski (1879-1947). Bochumer Studien Zur Philosophie 10. Amsterdam: B. R. Grüner, 1988.

Kretzmann, N, A. Kenny and J. Pinborg, eds. The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Flasch, K. Das philosophische Denken im Mittelalter. Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam jun., 1986.

Pluta, O. Kritiker der Unsterblichkeitsdoktrin im Mittelalter und Renaissance. Bochumer Studien zur Philosophie 7. Amsterdam: B.R. Grüner, 1986.

Dronke, P., ed. A History of Twelfth-Century Western Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Imbach, R and A. Maierú, eds. Gli studi di filosofia medievale fra otto e novocento. Atti del convegno internazionale Roma, 21-23 settembre 1989. Storia e letteratura: Raccolta di studi e testi 179.Roma: 1991.


Berlioz, Jacques, Identifier sources et citations, Turhout: Brepols, 1994.

Dictionnaire de la Spiritualité ascétique et mystique: doctrine et histoire, 16 vols, 103 fasc., Paris: Beauchesne, 1937-

Kaepelli, Thomas, O. P., Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum Medii Aevi, 4 vols. Rome: Santa Sabina, 1970.

Vogel, Cyrille, Medieval Liturgy. An Introduction to the Sources, Washington, D.C.: Pastoral Press, 1986.

Farmer, David Hugh, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979 (2nd ed)

Leonardi, C., A. Riccardi, G. Zarri, eds., Il Grande Libro dei Santi. Dizionario Enciclopedico, Vol. I-III. Torino: Edizioni Sao Paolo, 1998

Socii Bollandiani ed. Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina Antiquae et Mediae Aetatis, 3 vols. and 1 suppl. vol. Bruxelles, 1898-1901, 1992.

Philippart, Guy, ed., Hagiographies: histoire internationale de la littérature hagiographique latine et vernaculaire en Occident des origines à 1550. I-III. Turnhout: Brepols, 1993.

Schneyer, Johannes-Baptist, Repertorium der lateinischen Sermones des Mittelalters für die Zeit von 1150-1350, 11 vols. Munster: Aschendorff Verlag, 1969-1990

Kienzle, Beverly Mayne, The Sermon. Turnhout: Brepols, 2000.

Berlioz, Jacques - Marie Anne Polo de Beaulieu, ed. Les Exempla médiévaux. Introduction à la recherche suivie des tables critiques de l'index exemplorum de Frederic C. Tubach, Carcassone: GARAF, 1992.

Bremond, Claude - Jacques Le Goff - Jean-Claude Schmitt, L', Turnhout: Brepols, 1982.


Campbell, Gordon, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Dannenfeldt, Karl H. The Renaissance: Basic Interpretations. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath, 1974.

Elmer, Peter, Nick Webb and Roberta Wood, eds. The Renaissance in Europe: An Anthology. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

Ferguson, Wallace K. The Renaissance in Historical Thought: Five Centuries of Interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1948.

Grendler, Paul F. et al, eds. Encyclopedia of the Renaissance. 6 vols. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1999.

Hale, John. The Civilization of Europe in the Renaissance. New York: Atheneum, 1994.

Hillebrand, Hans et al, eds. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation. 4 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Kraye, Jill, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Humanism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Rabil, Albert Jr., ed. Renaissance Humanism: Foundations, Forms, and Legacy. 3 vols. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988.

Woolfson, Jonathan, ed. Palgrave Advances in Renaissance Historiography. London: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2005.


Brachmann, Hansjürgen, ed. Burg, Burgstadt, Stadt: zur Genese mittelalterlicher nichtagrarischer Zentren in Ostmitteleuropa. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1995.

Christie, Neill and Simon T. Loseby, eds. Towns in Transition: Urban Evolution in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1996.

Clark, Peter, ed. The Cambridge Urban History of Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Ennen, Edith. The Medieval Town. Translated by Natalie Fryde. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1979.

Epstein, Steven R., ed. Town and Country in Europe, 1300-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Gerevich, László, ed. Towns in Medieval Hungary. Budapest: Akadémiai, 1990.

Lev, Yaakov, ed. Towns and Material Culture in the Medieval Middle East. Leiden: Brill, 2002.

Lilley, Keith D. Urban Life in the Middle Ages, 1000-1450. London: Palgrave, 2002.

Schofield, John and Alan Vince. Medieval Towns. London: Leicester University Press, 1994.

Verhulst, Adriaan E. The Rise of Cities in North-West Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1999.

Latin (Advanced)

Cristian Gaşpar

Advanced Latin is open to anyone whose level is above intermediate and who would like to improve their Latin studies. The purpose of the course is to offer the students a chance to get acquainted with and explore Late and Medieval Latin in all its variety. The course is also designed to prepare those wishing to take the standardized Toronto Medieval Latin Exam. The department offers an opportunity for the best students to take the Toronto Latin Exam (Medieval Latin). This exam is organized once a year, in April, and for those who successfully pass it grants a certificate accepted worldwide. “The ability to read Latin fluently is regarded by the Centre for Medieval Studies in the University of Toronto as an essential tool for scholars working on the Middle Ages. In 1969 the Centre established a standing committee for Medieval Latin studies with two purposes: (a) to establish and maintain a standard of linguistic proficiency for all students; (b) to promote the advanced study of Medieval Latin.” In fact, Toronto is unique in the way it has extended Medieval Latin linguistic and literary research. A recent venture is the Journal of Medieval Latin and the availability to scholars outside Toronto of a Latin accreditation service. For more information please see the following WEB page:

1 credit

Latin (Intermediate)

Cristian Gaşpar

It is mandatory for Medieval Studies’ students to pass the intermediate level of Latin. During the pre-session in September a departmental placement test is administered. Based on the results, students are placed into a group at the appropriate level and attend a one-month intensive Latin course in order to help everyone to reach the intermediate level by the beginning of the Fall Semester. For those who need it, additional basic courses (without credit) may be offered during the first semester, at the student’s expense. Intermediate Latin courses will be credited during the Fall Semester. Students may be exempted from the Intermediate level if they can prove equivalent knowledge with a university transcript or a similar document.

1 credit

MA Thesis Seminar

Aziz Al-Azmeh – Marianne Sághy; József Laszlovszky – Alice Choyke

The MA Thesis Seminar is conceived of as the central activity of the whole year. It opens with lectures on approaches to research (October), and continues with students presenting oral reviews of previously defended MA theses in our department. Each student selects one MA Thesis from the departmental thesis archive and describes the sources, the methodology, and the main findings of this thesis. The oral presentation should also contain an academic evaluation and critical remarks concerning the scholarly value of the study. During the second half of the semester (November-December) outlines of the planned theses are discussed. Each student prepares an outline of his/her own thesis, reflecting thematic, source material, and methodological issues and gives a short oral presentation for the seminar group. A short written handout is also be prepared for this presentation. Students will be divided into two seminar groups by the department based on their topics and interests.

0 credit (calculated as part of the 8 credits received for the thesis)

Research Methodology and Academic Writing

Judith Rasson

This course is designed to provide a “working” review of the standards and expectations of the Medieval Studies Department as regards the skills of academic writing, the documentation of sources, and oral presentations. During the semester, students will write short topical assignments using the free-writing method, prepare preliminary outlines for their theses, and compile one bibliography pertinent to their research interests. Students are encouraged to develop their critical reading skills through writing a critical reading essay and a rhetorical analysis.

2 credits

The Bible for Medievalists

György Geréby

The course offers an initiation to the mediaeval Bible from the Septuagint to the Clementine Vulgate, with an overview of the modern editions and the differences in the organizational principles. The course covers the formation of the text and the canon, the most important mss, and the genres in the transmission of Biblical knowledge. The basic interpretative techniques of the medieval period Christian Fathers are shown in texts, calling attention to additions or changes in the way they came to be read during their transmission and transformations.

2 redits

Art and Liturgy in the Middle Ages

Béla Zsolt Szakács

Medieval art is discussed traditionally in its stylistic or iconographical framework. However, the majority of medieval historic monuments and works of art were prepared primarily with special goals. Thus, a real understanding of many great pieces of art cannot be imagined without the knowledge of their original historical and functional context. As the best-preserved medieval buildings and works of art usually come from a church context, research into their original liturgical purpose is of primary importance. Although this idea is self-evident, the knowledge of the liturgical framework is usually not. This course will help in understanding key elements of medieval art in their original liturgical function. Necessarily, the first classes are dedicated to the complex system and history of the Western Christian liturgy, which is usually not studied in depth by historians and art historians. The second part of the course will focus on the architectural problems, as the main framework of any liturgical event. Special problems, such as those of westworks, eastern and western sanctuaries, and the evolution of the crypts will be discussed in detail. The third part will introduce the world of the altars and their equipment, including the changing forms of altarpieces, the splendid objects in church treasuries, and, with special emphasis, the arrangement and decoration of liturgical manuscripts.

2 credits
Topical Course

Collecting - Science, Technology and Museums During the Renaissance

Marcell Sebők

The course presents an overview of the concepts and development of the first organized collections during the Renaissance in the context of contemporary scientific research. Examples will show the changing attitudes towards experimental perception – such as theatres of anatomy and university collections; the accumulation of worldly goods in private assemblies, such as the “first museum” of the Medicis or the so-called Wunderkammer in princely courts, and the technological interest of certain humanist scholars and artists from Leonardo to Antun Vrančić (Verancsics).

2 credits
Topical Course

Demography, Trade and Urbanisation in Medieval Central Europe

Nagy Balázs

The aim of this course is to give an introduction into the economic transformations of Central Europe, (Germany, Bohemia, Poland and Hungary) in the period of early and high Middle Ages. It will give an overview of the main determinants of the economic / commercial activities of the period, e.g. demographical changes, the significance of mining and minting in medieval economies, social and technical factors of transportation and interactions of urbanization and commercial activity. Besides these the course will concentrate on individual commercial zones, which were in close contact with Central Europe.

2 credits
Topical Course

Institutions of Urban Societies and Royal Power in East Central Europe

Neven Budak

The course will deal with different types of urban societies in East Central Europe, divided into two major zones: the Mediterranean and the continental. Institutions of urban societies will be examined on the basis of diplomatic, legal, and narrative sources. Special attention will be paid to the relation of royal power and urban communities. Examples will be used mainly from the Kingdom of Hungary and Croatia, but students will be encouraged to analyze also material from other regions, according to their own interests.

2 credits
Topical Course

Medieval Monastic Culture

József Laszlovszky

The seminar will discuss medieval monasteries mainly from a functional point of view, giving a general overview of the different spiritual and architectural traditions of the monastic orders. It will explore the present role of medieval archaeology and landscape studies as well as hagiography in research on medieval monastic communities, with a special emphasis on recent methodological issues (landscape, spatial organization of monasteries, ideal and reality approaches, industrial activity, etc.). Different research directions and analytical approaches will be discussed in the form of case-studies. The case studies will focus on different ideas of monastic life and their interaction with the physical world that surrounded the monastic communities. They will be selected from Eastern and Western monastic traditions including eremitic, coenobitic, urban, Benedictine, Cistercian, and Mendicant examples.

2 credits
Toical Course

Renaissance Europe: Culture, Institutions, Representations

György Endre Szőnyi

Renaissance Studies form a connecting link between medieval studies and modern history, just as the Renaissance is often referred to as the “early modern” period between the Middle Ages and modernity. The familiar labels attached to the Renaissance since its first historical construction by Jacob Burckhardt, such as “the birth of the individual,” “the rise of rationalism and the scientific revolution,” “the human-centered universe,” etc. all indicate that the Renaissance was not only one of the historical periods but a specific epoch which bears direct importance for the self-definition of our present age, too. It is not by chance that some important post-structuralist trends of cultural theory (New Historicism, e.g.) evolved from a theoretical-methodological revolution in Renaissance Studies in the 1980s and have become paradigmatic modes of critical discourse. After having looked at the medieval antecedents (the Carolingian Renaissance, the rise of medieval Italy and the important role of medieval urbanization), this survey course introduces the Renaissance as an important transitory period of great epistemological (from an organic to a mechanistic world view), ideological (individualism, “man-centeredness”), social-psychological (the Reformation) and artistic (from emblematic to a representational style with perspective) paradigm shifts. Special attention is given to new or radically reformed socio-cultural institutions (courts, universities, academies, art collections, patronage, etc.).

2 credits
Topical course

Signa et res: Introduction to Medieval Philosophy

György Geréby

An introduction to some of the fundamental issues of the philosophy of the Schools in the Latin West between cca. 1050 and 1450, from Peter of Damian to Nicolaus Cusanus. The analytic character of the philosophy of this period is approached via the linguistic, semantic and logical points of view, together with some basic issues in natural theology.

2 credits
Topical Course

The History of Daily Life

Gerhard Jaritz

The History of Daily Life concentrates on the role of repetitive, habitual and routine human behavior in medieval society Special attention is paid to the theoretical and methodological aspects of analysis, on the approaches towards various types of sources (texts, images, archaeological evidence), and on their critical, interdisciplinary, and comparative interpretation. Problems of source intention, representation, image and ‘reality’, norm and practice, contrasts, connotations, ambiguities, and ambivalences are treated. Daily Life is seen in close context with social and gendered aspects of life, with ‘public’ and ‘private’ space, and the application and meanings of symbols and signs.

2 credits
Topical Course

The Image of the “Other” in Byzantium

Stephanos Efthymiadis

A multi-ethnic empire in both its early and middle periods, Byzantium saw disruptions and dissent disputing its religious and cultural homogeneity on various occasions. Ethnic and religious groups, within or outside the Byzantine orbit, were met with different attitudes and treated with different methods aimed at their cleansing, rejection, appropriation, and acculturation. Defined as opponents of a certain norm of behavior and belief, “marginals” were targeted at different times according to different social criteria. This course will introduce students to questions of prevailing social ideology and identity, definition and literary portrayal of “the other,” local degrees of differentiation, continuity and discontinuity over the time. Students will be asked to read a variety of sources ranging from legal documents to works of literature and discuss points regarding the perception of “the other” during the Byzantine millennium.

2 credits
Topical Course


Béla Zsolt Szakács

This course covers the terminology of medieval architecture and how to describe a medieval building. Students will develop the ability to read architectural drawings. Dating buildings will be addressed through the relative chronology of a medieval building and how stylistic and typological criteria are used for absolute dating. Critical evaluation of written sources related to building history will be discussed, along with the historical, iconographical, and sociological interpretations of medieval buildings.

Research Method Module / Material / Visual
1 credit, lasting for 6 weeks

Archaeozoology: People and Animals

Alice Choyke

The course offers a general introduction to animal and human interactions (with data from archaeozoology, images, symbolic, and cultural traditions in animal use), using taphonomy as a general concept for understanding the place of animals in Medieval Studies. Animals are considered as environmental indicators of medieval environments and landscape. Their roles are examined in household, rural, estate and urban subsistence and trade as well as in material culture (crafts, special depositions). Animals are also considered as images and symbols in the Middle Ages.

Research Method Module / Material / Visual
1 credit, lasting for 6 weeks

Law and Legal Systems: Roman, Canon, Common, Customary Laws

DeLloyd J. Guth

This module offers a survey of primary texts and dialectics, as well as a topical analysis of criminal and civil procedures for each type of system. The rule of law moves in mysterious ways: with its own vocabulary, leaving large archival varieties of original sources (with handbooks and research aids to guide us); with the core concepts of IUS and LEX; for medievalists in the contexts of Roman, Germanic, Latin Christian, feudal, East European and Anglo-French realities, with the late-medieval Western divergence between English common law and continental European civil law systems; with a doctrinal focus on laws of obligation: (why pay your debts and keep promises?); with a procedural focus on peaceful dispute settlement; and with a general focus on the emergence of basic legal texts, as well as on the legal theories that shaped their institutional implementations.

Research Method Module / Text
1 credit, lasting for 6 weeks

Medieval Codicology

Anna Somfai

The aim of the course is to provide familiarity with the medieval manuscript book, the object that transmitted classical and medieval texts and now enables us to arrive at some knowledge concerning the environment, interests and scholarship of those who produced each codex. Equal attention is paid to the textual and visual elements of manuscripts. The course discusses the physical production of manuscripts (preparation of parchment and paper, ruling, writing, illuminating, binding), the archaeology of the folio (the textual and visual elements of the various layers of the main text and glosses), and the context of diverse scholarly communities (monastery, cathedral school, university) within which codices were produced and used.

Research Method Module / Text
1 credit, lasting for 6 weeks

Physical and Cultural Space

Judith Rasson and Katalin Szende

Medieval documents are not the only sources of information about the cultural use of space. Physical space shapes and is shaped through cultural behavior; the landscape itself is a non-written source that can be “read” to understand the past. The module deals with the perception and use of space as an essential dimension of medieval life, as well as with those possibilities that considering spatial relations opens up to the understanding of various fields of research. The practical side of this theme will also be addressed through the reading and designing of maps. Weekly topics will be: Perception of physical and cultural space; toponyms: Meaning and identification; The conventions of cartography; landscape and settlement topography; spatial analysis as a research tool; designing maps for research and presentation.

Research Method Module / Other fields
1 credit, lasting for 6 weeks

Time and Chronology

Marianne Sághy

How do people locate themselves in time? This research module introduces students with the help of textual sources to the study of different chronological systems and calendars: Graeco-Roman, Jewish, Christian and Muslim. Apart from offering a theoretical understanding of the various ways of counting and marking time, the course will also give a practical training in dating late antique and medieval artefacts, monuments and manuscripts.
I. Graeco-Roman, Hebrew, Christian and Muslim chronological systems
II. The Christian calendar: From Eusebius of Caesarea to Dionysius Exiguus
III. The Calendar of 354
IV. The Easter Tables
V. Dating medieval manuscripts
VI. Dating medieval objects and monuments

Research Method Module / Other fields
1 credit, lasting for 6 weeks

Word and Text in Medieval Christianity

Gábor Klaniczay

Contrasting orality and literacy, the course covers the topics of: oral and written texts in the Holy Writ, liturgical books, rules, legends, miracle accounts, sermons, disputations, controversies on matters of faith, judicial, inquisitorial protocols, and benedictions/maledictions.

Research Method Module / Text
1 credit, lasting for 6 weeks

Greek (Beginner)

Cristian Gaşpar

This course is intended to provide the students with a basic knowledge of Attic Greek, which can then serve as a basis for a later exploration of postclassical and Byzantine Greek. By the end of the first semester the course will cover elementary notions such as the alphabet, pronunciation, accentuation, the first and second nominal declensions, the present and the future of regular verbs, as well as basic notions of syntax. The aim of the course is to provide students with a minimal vocabulary in Attic Greek so as to enable them to read a few easy texts. In addition, a brief overview of the development of the Greek language will also be provided.

Other Optional Classes
1 credit

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